General Fabric Information
Question: What is cotton? Answer: A lightweight, moisture-absorbing fiber. No other fabric offers the comfort and feel of nature's own fiber. It's breathable, washable, and biodegradable.
Question: What is combed cotton? Answer: A cotton that goes through an additional "combing" process so that only the longer fibers remain. This improves the softness and strength of the yarn.
Question: What is Ring Spun Carded cotton? Answer: A cotton yarn with good durability and hand (feel), however, it is not combed to remove the short fibers.
Question: What is Mercerized cotton? Answer: A cotton yarn that is put through an additional finishing process (called Mercerizing) to provide great luster and softness to the yarn and to intensify dyed colors.
Question: What is a silk blend? Answer: A very smooth, soft, and moisture-absorbing fiber. Silk acts as a natural thermal retainer that does not conduct heat.
Question: What is wool? Answer: Wool is the original, easy care fiber. Each wool fiber is made up of millions of "coiled springs" that stretch during use but coil back to their original positions. It features inherent qualities such as wrinkle resistance, colorfastness, shape recovery (resiliency), and it breathes with your body. It can be knit in various weights to provide increasing levels of insulation for every temperature. Wool yarn, when knitted into a thicker sock, tends to be bulky and lofty. Air becomes entrapped and it becomes an ideal insulator. Wool socks also keep feet drier because wool absorbs as much as 30% of its own weight before it begins to feel damp. And even wet wool is warm.
Question: What is Merino wool? Answer: A special, fine grade of wool that originally came from Merino sheep. It has all of the characteristics classic to wool that are listed above, but what makes Merino wool different is the luxurious softness and comfort provided by the fine diameter Merino fibers. Unlike traditional wool, Merino wool does not itch and is shrink-treated to hold its size and shape even after repeated washing.
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Question: What is Merino Lambs Wool? Answer: A unique type of Merino wool. This specialized luxury fiber is prized for its plush softness, and is the finest grade of commercial wool available. For yarn to qualify as lambs wool, 65% of the fiber content must come from the very first shearing of a lamb.
Question: What is Worsted wool? Answer: A wool yarn spun under the Worsted system. This type of spinning aligns the fibers parallel to each other to provide extreme strength and durability.
Question: What does woolenspun mean? Answer: It is the process of spinning wool with random fiber alignment to create loft and softness.
Question: What is an Acrylic Blend? Answer: This synthetic fiber provides softness and warmth with little weight and high durability. Acrylics inherent properties allow them to hold brighter and more brilliant colors than their natural fiber counterparts.
Question: What is Acrylic Pile? Answer: An acrylic fabric that gets a velvety surface produced when the raised loops of the fabric are cut and sheared.
Question: What is Nylon? Answer: A versatile, continuous-thread, hard-wearing fiber. Exceptionally strong, elastic, abrasion-resistant, lustrous, easy to wash, resistant to damage from oil and many chemicals, can be pre-colored or dyed in a wide range of colors, resilient, and low in moisture absorbency. Filament yarns provide smooth, soft, long-lasting fabrics. Spun yarns lend light weight and warmth to fabrics. Socks made of nylon can be thin and silky or bulky and highly elastic. Nylon is often used with other fibers to give added stretch or to improve durability.
Question: What is Stretch Nylon? Answer: Nylon strands that are air-entangled or crimped to provide elasticity. It is used to achieve stretch and recovery.
Question: What are Polyester & Stretch Polyester? Answer: Water-repelling fibers that are known for their durability and are extremely colorfast for vivid coloration.
Question: What is Polyester Fleece? Answer: A polyester fabric that has been sheared to give it a velvet-like appearance and feel.
Question: What is Polypropylene? Answer: A superior water-repelling fiber that won't accept moisture. It is used alone or with absorbent outer layers that work together to wick moisture away from your body. It is very strong, and has the lowest specific gravity (lightest) of any synthetic fiber.
Question: What is Spandex? Answer: A synthetic fiber with elastic properties, that is often used in place of rubber. Used with other fibers, it provides elasticity, recovery, and close fit, primarily in ribs to hold the leg in place, and in the arch and ankle to provide extra support.
Question: What is CoolMax®? Answer: A high-performance, four-channel fiber engineered to move moisture and speed the evaporation of perspiration. It is a superior fabric for wicking action, drying time, moisture absorption and transport. (CoolMax® is a registered trademark.)
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Question: What is Gore-Tex®? Answer: A waterproof, breathable membrane. Microscopic pores in the membrane are small enough to prevent liquid water from penetrating but are large enough to allow water vapor to pass for breathability. (Gore-Tex® is a registered trademark of W.L. Gore.)
Question: What is Lycra®DuPonts? Answer: A brand of spandex fiber that adds four-way stretch and recovery to increase form fitting ability.
Question: What is OlefinA? Answer: A generic name for a variety of polypropylene fibers.
Question: What is Orelle® Acrylic? Answer: Acrylic fibers that go through a special dry-spinning process. (Orelle® is a Pharr Yarns, Inc. registered trademark.)
Question: What is a ThermaStat fabric? Answer: A fabric which provides breathability and warmth while moving moisture from the body by combining a thermally-efficient polymer and micro-sized hollow core fibers that heat up quickly and retain warmth. (ThermaStat is a DuPont trademark.)
Question: What is Dacron® Polyester? Answer: A DuPont brand of polyester fibers.
Question: What is Duraspun® Acrylic? Answer: A high-bulk acrylic fiber that offers superior softness, wicking and thermal conductivity. It has a superior warmth-to-weight ratio so it can keep feet warm without adding weight or excess bulk. In warmer weather, its wicking action works to keep feet dry and cool. (Duraspun® is a registered trademark of Monsanto Corporation.)
Question: What is DuPont Hollofil® Polyester fiber? Answer: A high-loft insulation that keeps the cold out. Hollow core fibers trap air to provide warmth and loft. Combined with other fibers, especially in the Trailblazer® series, it creates a lightweight, thermally superior sock. (Hollofil® is a registered trademark.)
Question: What is OUTLAST®? Answer: A material in which Temperature Regulating Fibers minimize the reliance on trapped air for insulating. Instead, micro-thermal materials absorb, store, distribute and release heat in response to the bodys comfort needs. This minimizes changes in thermal comfort by neutralizing uncomfortable and potentially dangerous temperature extremes, regardless of the outside environment or physical activity level. (OUTLAST® is an Outlast Technologies, Inc. registered trademark.)
Question: What is ThermaxCM? Answer: Hollow core fibers which prevent heat loss by trapping a layer of warm air around the foot while transporting perspiration to the outer layer of moisture absorbing fabric. These fibers offer great softness and wicking ability. (ThermaxCM is a DuPont certification mark for fabrics meeting its quality standards.)
Question: What is Lumiza? Answer: An moisture-absorbing acrylic fiber containing micropores that have a capillary action to absorb moisture, and then dissipate it by evaporation. Although it is a lightweight fiber, it has superior insulation qualities. it is soft, breathable, and quick drying. (Lumiza is a Kanebo, Ltd. trademark)
Question: What is Polartec®? Answer: High performance fleece fabrics developed to help control your Body Climate and allow you to stay comfortable regardless of the weather or activity. The Polartec® 200 BiPolar Series Fabrics used in Wigwam fleece products provides exceptional warmth without excess weight as well as weather resistance. The durable and dense outer layer sheds water and snow, dries quickly, resists wind, and is breathable and non-pilling. The comfortable, lofty shearling inner layer traps heat to provide thermal insulation without excess weight. (Polartec® is a registered trademark for fabrics made only by Malden Mills Industries, Inc.)
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Question: What is Thinsulate®? Answer: Thinsulate® Thermal Insulation is an insulating fiber that is breathable, durable, and is able to retain most of its insulating qualities, even under damp conditions. It is lightweight, and is warmer than other synthetic high-loft insulations when equal thicknesses are compared. (Thinsulate® is a registered trademark of 3M Corporation.)
Question: What is Trailblazer? Answer: A technical blending of wool, acrylic, and Hollofil®. TrailBlazer yarns provide socks with just the right combination of fibers to get outstanding results and confort. A great fiber blend that creates socks with the resiliency of wool, the wicking ability of Acrylic and the insulation of Hollofil®. (Trailblazer Yarns is a Wigwam Mills, Inc. trademark. Hollofil® is a DuPont registered trademark)
Question: What is the The Wonder~Wick® Moisture Control System? Answer: A technique developed by Wigwam Mills to keep your feet warm, dry, and comfortable. A moisture-repelling yarn next to the skin wicks the perspiration away from the foot. A moisture-absorbing fiber on the outside of the sock works with the inner fiber to ensure that moisture stays away from the foot. A dry foot is warmer in the winter and cooler in the summer. The lack of moisture next to the foot is also instrumental in eliminating the formation of blisters. (Wonder-Wick® is a registered trademark of Wigwam Mills, Inc.)
Question: What is ThermasilkTM Construction?
Answer: Silk is the only natural fiber in the world that can go from a raw state into a finished garment without processing. Silk is radiant and lustrous. Like a fine pearl, silk is composed of layers of protein built up to give it a pearly sheen.
Silk is truly a miracle of nature. For silk production to take place, the silk cocoons are placed in a liquid to loosen the "glue" which binds the silk filament around the cocoon. Mechanical fingers then "unwind" a continuous, unbroken filaments of silk thread from each cocoon. Fourteen filaments are twisted together to form one "end". Three "ends" of silk filaments are then twisted together to form 1 strand of silk yarn or a total of 42 filaments from 42 silk cocoons.
Question: What is ThermasilkTM EC2TM Qwik-DriTM? Answer: After 4000 years, nature and science have joined forces to produce a silk garment which can now help thermo-regulate the body's temperature and dramatically speed up the dispersion and rapid evaporation of the body's perspiration. ThermasilkTM EC2TM QWIK-DRITM silk line of underwear takes the best nature has to offer to a new level of performance and comfort.
Question: What is ThermasilkTM 100% Pure Silk? Answer: Because silk is so soft, lightweight and warm, it is the ideal fabric for next-to-the-body garments. Silk is as strong as a strand of steel the same diameter. Combining that strength and insulating properties, you have the perfect solution for all cold weather sport enthusiasts who are looking for extraordinary warm, feather light-weight underclothing with absolutely no bulk.
Question: What is Travel SilksTM 100% Pure Silk? Answer: All Travelsilks come with an individual, reusable locking-drawstring mesh towel bag and Travelsilks hangtag. The bag will hold both a silk top and pant, making it extremely easy to pack.
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Question: What is Woolrich TechnoWoolTM? Answer:Woolrich continues their tradition of technical, functional products with new Woolrich TechnoWoolTM. Woolrich has taken the incredible performance characteristics of wool and developed a state-of-the-art fabric. TechnoWoolTM utilizes wool's natural crimp, or coiled shape. Special techniques are use to tightly weave the fibers, making it less permeable to outside air and producing smaill, insulative cellular air pockets that hold body heat. TechnoWoolTM utilizes wool's natural wicking quality, pulling perspiration and body vapor from the skin and absorbing as much as 30% of its own weight in moisture. The structure of the wool fiber traps air, enabling TechnoWoolTM to maintain its insulative properties even when wet. Double TechnoWoolTM creates a temperature-controlled microclimate next to the body that assures comfort during both warm weather and cold weather activities.
Question: What is Filson's 100% Virgin Wool? Answer: For more than a century, Filson 100% Virgin Wool has been synonymous with the finest rugged outerwear money can buy. It's not unusual to find Filson wool garments handed down from generation to generation, treasured as much by the second owner as the first. That's because, even in this age of synthetic wonder fabrics, wool continues to be the fabric of choice for serious outdoorsmen. Naturally water repellent, wool will absorb as much as 30% of its own weight in moisture without becoming damp or clammy. So, it retains body warmth even when very wet.
And there is no finer wool than Filson 100% Virgin Wool. Filson wool comes from a small band of hardy sheep in a special region of the U.S. Their wool has thick sturdy fibers for rugged durability and warmth. Woven to Filson's unique specifications, this wool has proven to provide greater resilience, more natural insulating qualities, and superior water repellency. Whether you're caught in a snowstorm or perspiring heavily from exertion, you can rely on Filson wool to help control your body temperature and avoid hypothermia. Dry Clean only.
Question: What should I know about Filson 100% Virgin Wool Sweaters? Answer: Filson's specially milled, tightly knit, worsted wool yarns give their sweaters a firm finish that wears extremely well. This finish is not only pleasing to the touch, but also actually enhances the natural water-repellent properties of the wool fibers. Whether used as an outer garment or an inner layer, Filson's 100% Virgin Wool sweaters will exceed your expectations for performance and longevity. They will last a lifetime and, Filson believes, are designed to be handed down to future generations.
Question: Why does Filson say "100% Virgin Wool," never just "100% Wool": Answer: You may have noticed we always say "100% Virgin Wool", never just "100% Wool". The difference matters when you're trying to keep warm. "Virgin" wool comes straight from the sheep, so its fibers are as long as they can possibly be. Long fibers give Filson wool its natural strength, warmth, and water-absorbing capacity.
"Non-Virgin" wool has been previously processed in ways that shorten or weaken the fibers. For example, much non-Virgin wool comes from factory trimmings whose fibers are shorter from having been cut. Manufacturers who use such wool (Filson doesn't) often add nylon to their fabric to reinforce the weakened wool fibers. But nylon lacks warmth and can't absorb water -- it subtracts the very qualities you count on in Filson wool.
That's why Filson wool is always "100% Virgin Wool".
Question: What is Filson Tin Cloth? Answer: Filson Tin Cloth provides the toughness of legends -- 100% Cotton Tin Cloth in Oil or Dry Finish. When customers try to describe just how tough Filson Cotton Tin Cloth is, claims of "it actually saved my life" or "I've worn it for 50 years" aren't uncommon. It earned the name Tin Cloth decades ago when tin was the standard for toughness. And it's still the fabric of choice for maximum protection against rain, wind, brush, and abrasion.
12.5 oz. Oil Finish Tin Cloth is the most durable, wind-resistant, and water-repellent cloth Filson makes. To create the Oil Finish, Filson's heavy, densely-woven cotton Tin Cloth is completely soaked in a paraffin-based wax. The highly water-repellent finished fabric (12.5 oz. per yard), although stiff at first, softens with use, gaining character over the years. Because the cotton is not preshrunk, this finish can only be cleaned by wiping or brushing it off.
11 oz. Dry Finish Tin Cloth has the same ruggedness with the convenience of machine washability. The same tough 100% cotton Tin Cloth is pre-shrunk, then treated with a durable, water-repellent and stain-resistant finish. The resulting fabric is of slightly lighter weight (11 oz. vs. 12.5 oz. per yard), has excellent breathability, is much softer than Filson's Oil Finish Tin Cloth, and is machine washable (allow 2-3% shrinkage). Dry Finish can be reproofed with Scotchgard® as the water repellency diminishes with repeated washings.
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Question: What is Filson's Shelter Cloth? Answer: A lighter weight alternative to Filson's Tin Cloth -- 100% Cotton in Oil or Dry Finish Shelter Cloth is both softer and more pliable than Tin Cloth, yet it's surprisingly strong. Named after military shelter tents, this dense fabric is made of high-quality, two-ply cotton yarns tightly woven in both directions for added strength.
8.5 oz. Oil Finish Shelter Cloth is the answer when maximum protection against rain and wind is your top priority. It is the perfect combination of fabric and finish for the outdoorsman who operates in very wet conditions. Comfortable Shelter Cloth is treated with Filson's famous paraffin-based wax. The result is a garment that is extremely water-repellent and wind-resistant, requires no break-in period, and is comfortable the first time you wear it. Like Filson's Oil Finish Tin Cloth, it can be cleaned only by wiping or brushing it off.
8 oz. Dry Finish Shelter Cloth offers protection and durability, plus comfort and flexibility. It makes ideal wear for fly fishing, bird hunting, and a variety of other sporting activities. Dry Finish Shelter Cloth garments are treated with a durable, water repellent and stain resistant finish. Rugged yet extremely flexible and comfortable, with excellent breathability. Machine washable (allow for 3-5% shrinkage). Dry Finish can be reproofed with Scotchgard (R) as the water repellency diminishes with repeated washings.
Question: What is Filson Cover Cloth? Answer: 102-year-old quality in a brand-new fabric that's remarkably lightweight, supple, and rain & wind-resistant. Lightweight, yet impenetrable to wind and water, Filson's new 6 ounce Oil Finish Cover Cloth was developed in response to requests for a natural, high-performance fabric that is breathable, with superior pliability, for a variety of temperature conditions.
The fabric itself is strong and durable, closely woven of 2-ply threads so fine that, with the addition of Filson's Oil Finish, it forms a tight wind and water barrier. Oil Finish Cover Cloth is highly functional in a wide range of conditions and uses - in town, on the stream, and in the field. The lightweight 100% cotton is breathable, making Cover Cloth ideal for wind and rain protection in very warm weather or during strenuous activity. For colder conditions, with the addition of a warm shirt and sweater, Cover Cloth will keep you comfortable even in freezing rain.
Question: What is Filson Moleskin? Answer: A soft - yet can break a chilly wind, easy to care for, very durable fabric, Moleskin is a very comfortable, tightly-woven cotton fabric in use for almost 200 years. The luxurious feel of Filson's 100% Cotton Moleskin garments makes them a pleasure to wear, yet they're plenty durable enough to keep up with your other Filson clothing. Machine washable, allow 3-5% shrinkage.
It's speculated that cotton Moleskin was named for its likeness to the ultra-soft fur of a mole. It has long been popular in Britain and other cooler climates because it can block a chilly wind, is easy to care for, and is very durable. Filson started using Filson Moleskin for collars on Shelter Cloth jackets, and it was so well-liked, that they began offering it in appropriate weights for vests, pants, and shirts. Allow for 3-5% shrinkage.
Question: What is Filson Brushed Twill? Answer: Filson Brushed Twill lives up to Filson's motto "Might As Well Have the Best." Used in Filson's Alaskan Guide Shirt, its quality and weight easily surpass anything else available in this type of shirt. Beefy 100% cotton (7 oz. per square yard), its dense weave creates durability, and helps block the wind. Yet the brushed surface makes this fabric soft to the touch, and very comfortable, for a garment you'll reach for every day. Machine washable, allow 3-5% shrinkage.
Question: What is Filson Safari Cloth? Answer: A fabric that keeps you both cool and protected in very warm conditions. Cool, comfortable, and lightweight, Filson's 100% cotton Safari Cloth is made with long-staple fibers for maximum durability. Two-ply yarns woven in both the warp and weft create a strong, long-wearing fabric that breathes like only cotton can -- keeping you both cool and protected in very warm conditions. Light (only 6 oz. per yard) and breathable, Filson's Safari Cloth is perfect for safari, travel, and general warm weather use. It's treated with a water-repellent, stain-resistant finish, and is machine washable. Allow for 2-3% shrinkage.
Question: What is Filson Feather Cloth? Answer: The lightest weight cloth Filson makes for the hottest conditions. Incredibly lightweight comfort and sun protection in the heat. Used to make our most popular lightweight shirt, which Filson believes is the lightest outdoor shirt available today. 100% Cotton, 3 ounce. Machine washable, allow 2-3% shrinkage.
Question: What is Filson Rugged Twill and Bridle Leather? Answer: The toughest luggage you'll every own. Nearly indestructible, Filson luggage is built to withstand continual use on the move under the most arduous conditions.
Filson's Rugged Twill is an industrial weight 22 oz. per yard. Densely woven for superior strength and longlasting toughness. Before assembly, this fabric is soaked in our special paraffin based wax, making it highly water repellent. The fittings are just as tough -- brass zippers and padlocks to resist corrosion in fresh or salt water and full-grain vegetable-tanned bridle leather from the strongest part of the hide.
Meticulously made at Filson's factory in Seattle, Washington, the quality of Filson luggage is unsurpassed. Each piece is made to last a lifetime.
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Sock Sizing and Information
Question: What sock do you recommend for a diabetic? Answer: Wigwam has introduced three Medical sock offerings. These socks will provide high-quality comfort with a low-compression, relaxed fit that enhances, rather than hinders, circulation. Styles include Therapeutic, DiaMed, and DriSole.
Question: Can a sock prevent blisters? Answer: Yes. First you need to be sure you are wearing the correct size sock along with your appropriate shoe size to eliminate any movement inside the shoe. If you are not sure what sock size you need, please see the sock size chart which is located in the question below.
Question: What is Ultimax? Answer: The high-performance Ultimax line of socks are made of a Moisture Control System. This system consists of a precise blending of fibers that pull (wick) moisture up from the bottom of the sock and channel it to the top of the sock where it can evaporate almost immediately. This advanced wicking action allows feet to stay dry by eliminating chafing, burning, and the subsequent blistering that moisture and friction can cause.
Question: How do I know what sock size I need? Answer: Click Here.
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